Malawi is a developing country in which enormous pressure is being exerted on forest resources. Forest cover of the country reduced from 47% in 1975 to 36% in 2005. This is the highest deforestation rate in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region, representing a net loss of some 30,000 to 40,000 hectares per year. This forest loss is mainly attributed to agriculture expansion and excessive use of biomass, such as wood, charcoal, and agricultural residues mostly used for cooking and heating. See here.
Biomass accounts for 88.5% of the country’s energy demand, 6.4% comes from petroleum, 2.8% from electricity (hydro power), and 2.4% from coal. More than 97% of households in Malawi rely on illegally and unsustainably sourced biomass (charcoal and firewood) for domestic cooking and heating energy. Inefﬁcient production and unsustainable use of biomass energy have contributed to environmental degradation, such as high deforestation, desertiﬁcation, soil erosion and flooding. See here.